A Vida Verdadeira de Domingos Xavier (Portuguese Edition)
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Angola entdecken! Later Jesuit writers do not quote him when it comes to miracles of any sort. The work has portions in Portuguese, Spanish, and Latin. The time period of this book covers is from and onwards. It includes the canonization process that culminates in , and matters concerning Xavier after he died. Insuper vidit ipse testis quod P. Et ipse testis illum tune intellexit in sua lingua. Et fama erat apud omnes illum, statim atque veniebat in unam regionem, loqui quamcumque linguam. Quare propter hoc multi convertebantur, quia hoc habebant pro magno miraculo…..
Emanuel Fernandez, Indian and a Parava, married, born and inhabitant in this town of Virandeptanani, merchant, who lives off his own monies and commodities. It is said he is to be 80 years or more. Moreover, his own testimony saw that Francis Xavier was preaching to these peoples in their language and everyone was astonished that he was speaking so well. When he came to them at that time, he could not learn their language which is very difficult. And while persons of the diverse nations and various languages were in that port and town, in a certain meeting, which the Father had spoken in the presence of this very witness, everyone confirmed that they understood him as if he was speaking in the specific and characteristic language of each one.
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And his own testimony understood him at that time in his language. And the fame was that among everyone, and also he came to one region, he was immediately able to speak whatever language. Which, according to this, many were converted because they held this as a great miracle.
Audivit amplius ipse testis a personis quae viderunt miraculum, quod P. Franciscus Xaverius habuit extasim in consecratione missae, quam celebrabat in quadam ecclesia portus Tevanapatani Coromandelli, et quod ibi, in quadam concione habita populo, cum essent praesentes multi mercatores diversarum nationum et variarum linguarum, unusquisque intelligebat illum in sua propria lingua ac si in illa tantum loqueretur, quod habitum fuit pro magno miraculo; et haec eadem fama erat in tota ora Piscariae, quod ille praedicabat statim atque venit in dictam oram idiomate paravano, ita polito, ac si ibi natus esset.
Synonyms and antonyms of marteleiro in the Portuguese dictionary of synonyms
Et de his omnibus miraculis supra relatis fuit etiam et est publica vox et fama….. Thomas Vaz, Indian and Parava, Indigenous, married and of such an inhabitant of Tutucurini, a good man, Christian and God fearer, who lived from his own bounty….. His own distinguished witness heard from persons who saw the miracle that Father Francis Xavier had an ecstasy in the celebrated mass which he celebrated in a certain church in the port Tevanapatani Coromandelli, a particular speech was made to the people, while there many merchants of the diverse nations and various languages were present, each one heard him in their own distinct language as if he was only speaking in it which had made for a great miracle.
And this very same report was in the entire coastland of Piscaria, because as soon as he preached, he too came having spoken in the coastal language of Paravano, so refined, as if he had been born in this place. Moreover, it is said that whatever region the said father would have come to, he became experienced and accustomed to speak in a few short days the particular language of that people, that happened while at the shore of Malabarica et in Maluco, and in Japan, because he [Pereira] himself had been an expert witness of all these languages, and likewise he had often spoken with the Father, as in the case of these very things he even conveyed lectures in the Malaysian language.
Subito enim a Deo diversarum ac [Pg. Indeed, he was suddenly speaking by God languages of diverse and unknown nations which he did not know, he had been taught most eloquently, as if he been brought up in these same countries. And whenever it occurred about his giving an address to persons of the diverse of nations, each one heard his own language at the very same time in which he was born, that he was hearing this one speaking the great things of God with wonder and awe and the multitude having been greatly moved with this great miracle received the word of God.
Faxit Deus, ut ad divinarum explicationem rerum, Iaponicam linguam, condiscamus quam primum. Nam nunc quidem inter eos tanquam mutae quaedam statuae, versamur. Multa enim illi de nobis et dicunt, et agitant, ad quae nos scilicet obmutescimus, patrii ipsorum sermonis ignari. In praesentia in linguae huius percipiendis elementis repuerascimus, atque utinam imitemur simplicitatem candoremque puerorum : nos certe infantium similitudinem sequimur, cum in vernacula lingua percipienda, tum vero in infantium simplicitate meditanda. Here is my English an English translation from the Latin.
A translation of the Portuguese ought to be the case here but I do not know Portuguese :. God grant that we may acquire such a thing first as the Japanese language in order to explain the divine doctrine. Then finally we will do with zeal the certain work of the matters of Christianity. We indeed move about now among them something like mute statues.
For these people are all talking and occupied about us, in fact we are silent, unaccustomed to their native speech. In the present time, we have become a child again in the process of learning the elements of this language. If only we could imitate the simplicity and candor of children. Daniello Bartoli — was an Italian Jesuit historiographer and writer. The following is from: D. Francis Xavier: Apostle of the Indies and Japan. Translated from the Italian by Frederick William Faber. In the first place, he applied himself to the study of the language, reducing himself again to the condition and simplicity of childhood, learning the words and their signification [Pg.
Moreover, such a delay must have been doubly trying to his excessive fervor and zeal; for, as he himself writes, he was become like one deaf and dumb, being unable to speak to others, or to understand those who spoke to him. Although, as we have before remarked, he had been favored with the gift of tongues, the gift was not so perpetual as to enable him to converse in a foreign tongue the moment he landed in this foreign country. It was only when God was pleased to invest him with this peculiar trait of the apostolate; only on occasions that the Divine Master was pleased to infuse the habit of a language.
But, whenever this was the case, he spoke it with as much grace, elegance, and case as if he were a native of the country in question. Humility forbade him ever to expect this miraculous accessory, and he therefor made himself at once a scholar, availing himself of interpreters to transfer the mysteries of religion to the dialect of the country; and then, after committing them to memory, he went forth to announce them in public. He began by doing this at the coast of Fishery, at Malacca, and at the Moluccas. He did the same in Japan, continuing his studies for a space of forty days; after which God became his master, when in a moment the construction of the language, its vocabulary and pronunciation, were as perfectly stamped on his intellect as if he had been [Pg.
In proof of which stupendous miracle, I shall here adduce the most incontrovertible testimony. Xavier himself admitted that, naturally, he had no talent for the acquisition of languages: nevertheless, we know from those who heard him — from those who were most intimate with him — that he could discourse fluently in more than thirty Indian dialects, all differing essentially from each other; and what is yet more remarkable, when he has been speaking in one single language, he was at the same time understood by people several different nations as clearly as if he had been addressing each individual in the language peculiar to his own country.
For he found himself on a sudden gifted by God with a knowledge of the languages of various nations till then wholly unknown to him, so as to speak them as fluently as if he had received his education in those countries. And it sometimes happened that, when he was preaching to persons of several different nations, each individual heard him, with wonder and delight, proclaiming the wonders of God in the language of his country; whereupon vast [Pg.
As such a circumstance is so extremely rare, and has never been conceded, even in those countries, to any other missionary in the same degree as to St. First, the power of speaking in an unknown and foreign idiom with fluency and elegance, by one who had not learned the language; and, secondly, to have been understood by persons of divers countries, as if each one were addressed in his native dialect, Xavier at the same time confining himself to only one language.
Moreover, at the said port of Tevenatapan there were a number of strangers collected from various nations: nevertheless, he was assured by these foreigners that, in his sermons to this mixed audience, each one understood him, and presumed the father to be addressing him in [Pg. The before-named Emanuel, moreover, affirmed that when he was present on these occasions he too supposed the saint to be discoursing in his own language. This testimony is confirmed by that of many others, who add that the elegance of his pronunciation and style on these occasions was unsurpassed even by the natives of the country where he was preaching.
Gaspar Secheria Abreu declared that once, when Xavier was preaching in the Japanese dialect, he understood him as speaking in Portuguese; whilst at the same time other foreigners understood him as speaking in their respective tongues. Four fathers of the Society, who had accompanied him through various parts of India, testify that, entering Japan with little or no knowledge of the language spoken there, he preached nevertheless without an interpreter,— his discourses being a compound of Portuguese, Latin, Spanish, Indian, or just what words happened to cross his mind; [Pg.
In the kingdom of Travancor, this miracle was so notorious, and produced such wonderful effects, that could he have remained there a short time longer the reader will remember he was called away by the distress of the Paravans there is no doubt the whole kingdom would have been brought over to the faith. The auditors of the Rota sensibly remark that certainly these innumerable conversions would not have resulted had the circumstances itself been doubtful; whereas, the truth of it being so clear, and the miracle so stupendous, the people entertained not a doubt of it, and therefore were convinced that the doctrines he promulgated could not be otherwise than true.
Now, as Almighty God had sent this servant for the salvation of the East, as he endowed him with other virtues of the apostolate, so did he, no doubt, render him similar to the apostles in this respect as in all the rest. Dominique Bouhours, — was another Jesuit scholar, writer, and historian who held the life and times of Francis Xavier very dearly.
He is also one of the most controversial figures on the subject. This argument is specially developed by Protestant scholars. However, the link does not have any page numbers which all researchers require. The page numbers refer to an imaged version found at archive. It is at least probable, that, being in the Indies when he studied any tongue, the Holy Spirit seconded his application, and was in some sort his master; for it is constantly believed, that in a very little time he learnt the most difficult languages, and, by the report of many persons, spoke them so naturally, that he could not have been taken for a foreigner.
The holy man spoke very well the language of those barbarians, without having learnt it, and had no need of an interpreter when he instructed. There being no church which was capable of containing those who came to hear him, he led them into a spacious plain, to the number of five or six thousand persons, and there getting up into a tree, that he might the farther extend his voice, he preached to them the words of eternal truth.
There it was also, that to the end the compass of the plain might serve in the nature of a church, he sometimes celebrated the divine mysteries under the sails of ships, which were spread above the altar, to be seen on every side. His first care was to have a little catechism translated into it, being the same he had composed on the coast of Fishery; together with a more ample instruction, which treated of the principal duties of Christianity.
The Real Life of Domingos Xavier
He learnt all this without book; and, to make himself the better understood, he took a particular care of the pronunciation. With these helps, and the assistance of interpreters, who were never wanting to him at his need, he converted many idolaters, as also Mahometans and Jews; amongst the rest, a famous rabbi, who made a public adjuration of Judaism.
This rabbi, who before had taken for so many fables, or juggling tricks, all those wonders which are reported to have been done by Xavier, now acknowledged them for truths by the evidence of his own eyes: for the saint never wrought so many miracles as at Malacca. The captain of the vessel was a Portuguese; the rest, as well mariners as soldiers, were Indians; all of them almost of several countries, and the greatest part Mahometans, or Gentiles.
The saint converted them to Jesus Christ during the voyage; and what convinced the infidels of the truth of Christianity, was, that when Father Xavier expounded to them the mysteries of Christianity in one tongue, they understood him severally, each in his own language, as if he had spoken at once in many tongues. God give us the grace to imitate the simplicity and innocence of children, as well as to practise the exercises of children. We ought not to be astonished in this passage last quoted, that a man to whom God had many times communicated the gift of tongues, should not speak that of Japan, and that he should be put to the pains of studying it.
Those favours were transient, and Xavier never expected them; insomuch, that being to make abode in a country, he studied the language of it as if he could not have arrived to the knowledge of it but by his own industry. But the Holy Spirit assisted him after an extraordinary manner, on those occasions, as we have formerly observed. And we may say, that the easiness wherewith he learnt so many tongues, was almost equivalent to the lasting gift of them.
He sent for them before him, and asked them, in the face of all his nobles, of what country they were, and what business brought them to Japan? The saint explained what was needful to be cleared, and spoke in all above an hour. At this time God restored to Father Xavier the gift of tongues, which had been given him in the Indies on divers occasions; for, without having ever learned the Chinese language, he preached every day to the Chinese merchants, who traded at Amanguchi, in their mother-tongue, there being great numbers of them. He preached in the afternoon to the Japonians in their language; but so naturally and with so much ease, that he could not be taken for a foreigner.
The ceremony was performed at Rome on the 12th of March, in the year But as death prevented him from making the bull of the canonization, it was his successor Urban VIII. This bull bearing date the 6th of August, in the year , is an epitome and panegyric of the miraculous life of the saint.
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For the actual French text, see Vie de St. Paris: Chez Jacques Lecoffre. Pope Benedict the XIV — was one of the foremost thinkers of his time. He was clearly Catholic in doctrine but not opposed to science or other forms of learning. His work, De Servorum Dei Beatificatione et Beatorum Canonizatione was likely a reaction against internal and Protestant diatribes against the exaggerated claims of miracles. This Pope outlined a better process for defining the gift of tongues in the canonization and beatification processes.
Within his reference to the gift of tongues, he brought up the problem of St. Francis Xavier. Did he or did he not speak in tongues? A translation along with a commentary has been devoted to this subject, see Pope Benedict on the Gift of Tongues for more information. He does not touch on the gift of tongues directly, but this is inclusive of the realm of miracles in the Catholic Church. I have now before me two lives of this famous saint, written as we may easily have supposed, though we had not known it by two fathers of his own order; by Tursellinus in Latin, and by Bouhours in French.
But as the latter is little more than a transcript of the former, dressed out in a more elegant manner, I shall, in the remarks which I make on these miracles, confine myself to the account given us of them by Tursellinus. The evidence I shall allege is that of Acosta, who himself had been a missionary among the Indians. His work, De procuranda Indorum Salute, was printed the year , that is, above thirty-seven years after the death of Xavier, and in it we find an express acknowledgement, that no miracles had ever been performed by missionaries among the Indians. That the miracles ascribed by Tursellinus to Xavier are posterior to the age of Xavier, may be deduced still more clearly from the testimony of the saint himself.
The mission of this apostle lasted ten years, during which time he regularly corresponded with his friends and the superiors of his order in Europe. These letters of his have been collected, and are now in the hands of the public. As they treat principally of his mission, of the progress he made, of the difficulties he had to struggle with, and the means he made use of to convert the Indians, it came unavoidably [Pg.
But so far is he from giving us the least hint of this, that he mentions a circumstance which is absolutely inconsistent with the supposition ; for, in many of his letters, he expresses himself greatly unable to do any good amongst those poor people, from his being ignorant of their languages, telling us that he had masters to instruct him, and frankly owning, that if he could not arrive at an acquaintance with them, he could do no service to Christianity.
Hugh Farmer — was a dissenter — a movement that did not conform to the Church of England and opposed state intervention in religion. They founded their own churches and educational institutions. The dissenters were composed of a variety of alternative Protestant groups and it is not known exactly which one Farmer adhered to, though his theology was very progressive for his time.
The following is from the edition. The church in Rome lay claim to a miraculous power, glories in it as a mark of the true church; and from hence infers the validity of her pretensions. Many learned protestants have allowed in part the truth of this claim, and admitted that some real miracles have been performed in the Roman church. But the inspired apostle brands them all as deceitful tricks, and fabulous legends.
Such, as many of the best attested are allowed to be, by the members of the Roman communion; and such with [Pg.
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It is not therefore the power of miracles as some maintain but the making false pretences to it, that St. Paul here and elsewhere assigns as one of the characteristics of the man of sin…. Will any one undertake, to produce one popish miracle, which is either more credible in its nature, or more strongly attested; than those learned papists themselves have condemned as impudent falsehoods? Charles Butler was a prominent English Catholic — whose book, Book on the Roman Catholic Church , published in , sought to clarify why the realm of miracles was in dispute between the Protestants and Catholics.
Aware of this inference, the protestant divines found it incumbent on them to contend, that at some period in the christian aera, there was a cessation of miracles in the christian church. Being required to specify this aera, they answered that it was when the corruption of christianity became general. They were then required to specify the period when this general corruption took place. Here a considerable disagreement was found among them. Some assigned it to the fourth, some to the fifth, some even to the sixth century ; but the generality assigned it to the conversion of the emperor Constantine.
Then, according to their system, christianity became the religion of the state; and, being supported by the secular arm, the christians no longer put their trust in God, and a general corruption of christianity ensued. From this time, therefore, the Almighty ceased to recognize their church, and withdrew from her the supernatural powers, with which, till then, He had invested in her. Such is the account which protestant writers give of the supposed aera of the corruption of christianity. It is evident, that whatever may be the period which they assign for it, there must be error in the [Pg.
Now, the roman-catholics produce a regular chain of miracles, wrought in every subsequent age of christianity. Then, as the protestants admit the existence of miracles, in the ages which preceded the aera assigned by them for the corruption of christianity, it became incumbent upon them to disprove the miracles alleged by the roman-catholics to have been wrought in the subsequent ages ; and this they could only do, by showing that the evidence for them was not so strong as the evidence adduced in support of the miracles wrought in the preceding ages, and allowed and credited by themselves.
Coleridge — is another Jesuit writer, but this time an Anglican convert to Catholicism. He lived in an era where England was in great tension between Anglican, Evangelical, Catholic and Rationalist communities. None of the great Saints of God are probably left altogether without gifts of this kind, but they seem to be especially frequent, as, so far as we can judge of such questions, they are also especially natural, Pg. Few lives contain more illustrious examples of this great gift than those of St. Bernard, St. Anthony of Padua, and St.
Vincent Ferrer, all of them great preachers among Christian nations, and St. We shall follow his former biographers in mentioning a few of these; but it must be remembered that when the gift of miracles has really existed, no account which is made up merely of selections from those particular instances as to which ocular and sworn witnesses happened to be at hand some years later, can possibly give any but a very inadequate idea.
It is probable that as St. Many misconceptions may be current as to the nature of this gift as imparted to the Apostles and others who have had to tread in their footsteps. Nor is there any reason for supposing that it always the same form with them or with their contemporaries. Paul speaks to the Corinthians and elsewhere, was not always precisely that gift which enabled the Apostles on the day of Pentecost to make themselves understood by men of so many different nations at once.
The natural interpretation of the words of St. Luke Acts ii. We may add that no one, as far as we know, has ever supposed that the Apostles and their companions became necessarily possessed of all the different dialects enumerated by the sacred historian in such a manner as to have them at their command for the ordinary purposes of life, so as to have been able to read or write them, to compose books or catechisms in them, or to be in any way independent, where the particular occasions for the miraculous gift ceased, of the ordinary difficulties in intercourse with persons of different nations which are the results of the confusion of tongues.
No one has ever supposed that, because St. Peter or St. Paul raised Tabitha or Eutychus to life, either of those Apostles has the power of raising every dead person they met with, or of preserving themselves from the natural doom of death. Both these remarks are necessary for the illustration of the evidence which has Pg. This evidence witnesses to his having had the power of speaking freely and clearly in the dialects of the numerous different tribes among whom he preached in the south of India, and those of Cape Comorin and the Coromandel coast are particularly named.
The same statement is made as to the Moluccas, and as to Japan. Altogether it is supposed that he must have had to preach to as many as thirty different nations, a number which will not seem surprizing when we remember that the witnesses are here speaking of tribes, with dialects of their own, as separate nations. It is particularly stated in the evidence that his possession of this gift was notorious, and that it was considered by the natives themselves as a mark of his mission from God, and this illustrates the words of St.
The occasions on which this took place were when he preached to a crowd, and we do not find it stated that he could dispense with an interpreter for more familiar conversation; nor is it said that there were never times at which he did not possess the gift even for public instructions, which he was often in the habit of giving by means of such interpreters. The gift of tongues, moreover, was but one of a number of marvellous powers imparted to Francis in the way and in the degree in which such powers are often bestowed upon the Saints.
The number of his miracles on the Fishery Coast and in the adjacent parts was so great, that we are assured that they would of themselves fill a large volume. Some few of the more signal of these miracles maybe rapidly mentioned. A beggar covered with sores and putrid wounds asked alms Pg. He was about to say mass in a little church at Combutur, when a crowd entered with the corpse of a boy who had been drowned in a well. The mother threw herself at the feet of Francis Xavier, who had baptized her child, and implored him to restore him to life.
After a short prayer, he took the dead child by the hand and bade him to arise. The child rose up at once, and ran to his mother. One of the two youths who accompanied him as catechists was bitten at night in the foot by a cobra da capello, and was found in the morning to be dead.
Francis touched the foot with the saliva from his mouth, made the sign of the Cross over him, took him by the hand and bade him rise in the name of Jesus Christ. He rose at once, and was able to continue on their journey immediately, as if had been simply asleep. There are other cases related of his raising the dead in this part of the country, and it is even stated in the Processes that one of the children whom he used to send about in his name to the sick raised two dead persons to life.
He was known for expanding the scope of college curriculae. A politician, he had served as state senator in New York. He was later appointed as a US diplomat to Germany and Russia, among other responsibilities. He tells us how he surmounted these difficulties : sometimes by learning just enough of a language to translate into it some of the main Church formulas ; sometimes by getting the help of others to patch together some pious teaching to be learned by rote ; sometimes by employing interpreters ; and sometimes by a mixture of various dialects, and even by signs.
On one occasion he tells us that his voyage to China was delayed because, among other things, the interpreter he had engaged had failed to meet him. In various Lives which appeared between the time of his death and his canonization this difficulty is much dwelt upon ; but during the canonization proceedings at Rome, in [Pg.
It was declared that he spoke to the various tribes with ease in their own languages. Nor was even this sufficient : to make the legend complete, it was finally declared that, when Xavier addressed the natives of various tribes, each heard the sermon in his own language in which he was born. It is hardly necessary to attribute to the orators and biographers generally a conscious attempt to deceive. The simple fact is, that as a rule they thought, spoke, and wrote in obedience to the natural laws which govern the luxuriant growth of myth and legend in the warm atmosphere of love and devotion which constantly arises about great religious leaders in times when men have little or no knowledge of natural law, when there is little or no knowledge of natural law, when there is little care for scientific evidence, and when he who believes most is thought most meritorious.
Analecta Bollandiana is a periodic publication started in by the Society of Jesus for reviews of critical hagiography. It is still being produced today. The complete French article has been devoted to its own page on this site. Not much is known about the Scottish writer Edith Anne Stewart — except that she was born in a religious family and her husband was Professor of Biblical Criticism at the University of Aberdeen. The following is from: Edith Anne Stewart.
José Luandino Vieira
The Life of St. Francis Xavier: Evangelist, Explorer, Mystic. Kingsway House: Headly Bros. Publishers, Ltd. Here we have numerous instances of every conventional and fashionable type of miracle, told with every possible flourish and accompanied by every platitude of piety. None of these tales are succinct enough to excuse quotation, but the picture facing p. It sometimes happens that as time goes on reliable material for a biography becomes increasingly available, and the later life therefore more authoritative than the earlier. Where Tersellinus makes the Saint raise four people from the dead, Bouhours adds ten.
Tursellinus says Xavier was transfigured twice; Bouhours says four times. And Bouhours throws in a miraculous drought of fishes and two extra miraculous supplies of fresh water. Yes, here History and Poetry have withdrawn together, and Sanctimoniuosness and Credulity have met and kissed.
And with regard to the gift of tongues, let us take one example from Bouhours, and then see what Tursellinus says on the same matter. James Brodrick was an Irish Jesuit who primarily focused on the history of the Jesuit movement. His publication, Saint Francis, is a comprehensive and unassuming portrait of both Francis Xavier and his legends. The following are excerpts from: James Brodrick, S.