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Thus, this book comprises those contributions by students, researchers and professionals interested in the general field of English language who wrote nine papers, some reflecting on fundamental issues in EIL approaches, conceptualization, attitudes, universality and comprehen- sibility , and others on teaching and learning issues, particularly on their adjustment to aspects related to ELF studies. In some other papers surface more distinctively implications on teaching and learning English in the new world order.
So, in the first paper, the exposure and use of English as a lingua franca in Portuguese speaking countries Brazil, Cape Verde and Portugal are mapped out and some conclusions are drawn concerning the desired profile of English teachers — native vs. It discusses the importance of developing materials for effective language learning and some of the main principles of creating materials that can help prepare students to interact successfully in English international contexts.
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The author further reflects upon implications in pedagogy, which may lead to adjustments for the teaching of English to the current global reality. The study of EIF is well on its way to become an established domain of English studies. Papers in this volume indicate that interest in English as a lingua franca is growing in the Portuguese speaking landscape; I hope this collection of papers on the real situation of English may provide a good contribution for the learning and teaching of this language in Portugal, by reconsidering its importance in the new globalization era.
Works Cited Graddol, David. The Future of English?
London: British Council, Kachru, Braj B. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, Mauranen, Anna and Elina Ranta Eds. English as a Lingua Franca: Studies and Findings. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, McArthur, Tom. World Englishes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Smith, Larry E. English for Cross-cultural Communication. New York: St. Graddol, David. My main point was to claim that NNS teachers need to embrace English as an International Language as a way to gain legitimacy in the profession, and by the same token English as an International Language needs to gain the support of NNS teachers as the first step towards being progressively recognized as a legitimate form of English.
However, NNS teachers are far from being unanimously willing to embrace such an idea Llurda , and in fact, the study of the ideology and attitudes of NNS teachers of English reveals that there are several factors affecting their positions and views. I will particularly refer to a study I conducted a few years ago among Catalan non-native teachers of English Llurda , In it, teachers acknowledged their weaknesses in L2 proficiency but did not think that these difficulties affected their teaching. According to them, a NNS teacher does not need to be fully proficient in the language in order to teach it successfully.
Most teachers declared they wanted their students to learn English as an international language. In other words, Catalan teachers thought that learning English implied learning about the culture of the UK, but not so much learning about the culture of other English-speaking countries, or other countries in the immediate international context, or even their own culture. Two of the results obtained in that study were apparently incom- patible: Two thirds of teachers thought that being a NNS gave them a specific pedagogical advantage over NSs in the classroom, but another two thirds would choose a NS teacher for themselves.
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Respondents were not given the option of a Catalan NNS teacher of English, in order to avoid self-identification with that supposed teacher, rather, they were given the options of choosing a NS or a non-Catalan NNS, who either knew or did not know the Catalan and Spanish languages. The rationale for this question was that if NNSs were intrinsically better due to their increased awareness, empathy, and knowledge of learning strategies, respondents would prefer a NNS regardless of what their language background was.
This did not happen, thus raising the question of whether the arguments used to proclaim the virtues of NNSs are based on the implicit assumption that NNSs speak the same L1 as their students, and the arguments used to show the weaknesses of NSs are based on the implicit assumption that all NSs are monolingual speakers who have no knowledge of the first language of their students.
This would certainly be an oversimplification of a much more complex reality. If the Catalan teachers in the above mentioned study Llurda had to choose a foreign-born teacher, they would choose the native speaker. This may seem rather an obvious response, and the result is relatively irrelevant in the Catalan context, as there are practically no NNSs with different L1 back- grounds, but it becomes important when seen through the light of ESL contexts i. Another quite relevant finding Llurda was the fact that teachers who stayed in English-speaking countries for a period of over three months rated their language skills higher than those who did not, and also expressed a higher appreciation for complex training activities e.
In other words, teachers with longer experience in English- speaking countries appeared to have improved their language skills as well as their self-confidence, which enabled them to be more critical and open to changes in their teaching principles, that is, less dependent on the traditional values giving monolingual NSs the consideration of ideal teachers.
Additionally, the participants in my study Llurda gave very little credit to their training years at the university. This result makes it worth pausing to think carefully about the curriculum future teachers have to follow. In contrast to the low appreciation of university courses, teaching practice was regarded as the most influential training experience. An expected outcome of this attitude may be a lack of involvement in professional activities, such as attending and presenting papers at conferences, which have been reported as highly recommended for the beneficial effects they have in establishing the professional status of language teachers Kamhi-Stein, ; Hones, ; Carrier, One finding that is worth mentioning here is the lack of input and interaction opportunities experienced by teachers.
Given the fundamental role of input and interaction in second language development, the low exposure of Catalan teachers to TV and films in English, combined with the large number of teachers who have very limited written or oral interactions in English outside the class, presents a picture of language development that is far from optimal.
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The positive effect of long stays in English-speaking countries on language proficiency points to one of the possible solutions to this, namely, an increase in the financial support given by educational authorities to teachers who spend some time abroad to improve their English language skills. An increase in the number and availability of TV shows and films shown exclusively in English would be a slightly more complex, but interesting, option that would probably have beneficial effects for the whole community of English language learners.
It may be concluded from all the above that well-trained NNS teachers are proficient users of English who, nonetheless, are aware of their language deficits. However, there are some NNS teachers and student teachers who experience language difficulties that may make it difficult for them to perform their teaching tasks in a completely successful manner. The variability in language proficiency among teachers is one of the worst handicaps experienced by NNS teachers, as it makes all of them potentially suspicious of not having reached a sufficient level of proficiency.
This can create a lack of appreciation for their capacities, and a corresponding loss of status among colleagues, administrators, and students. Only with hard work and constant commitment to the development of their language skills can NNS teachers eliminate the stigma of being poor speakers of the language.
Becoming aware that NSs are not intrinsically better teachers, and ensuring they are proficient speakers of English as an international language, should contribute to the general acceptance of NNSs as rightful teachers without further questioning of their skills and capacities. That would certainly have a positive effect on their self-confidence. An important handicap experienced by NNS teachers is lack of self- confidence.
Initially, I had not planned to investigate this concept. The literature on NNS teachers had not emphasized it and this did not seem to be a topic of much importance during the initial stages of my research. However, as the study progressed, self-confidence appeared to become an important variable. A series of interviews with TESOL practicum supervisors confirmed that they considered important to help NNS student teachers increase their level of self- confidence as a key to their professional success in language teaching. Research on NNS teachers has just started to gain momentum and there is still a long way to go.
Much more research is needed. However, there is still a need for classroom observation studies in which the actual performance of NNS teachers in different contexts is reported. Many more studies are needed in the future. The observation of classes will be the ultimate test for many of the claims that are currently made. In any case, regardless of the methodology, future research should avoid falling in an oversimplification of the issues. As claimed in Moussu and Llurda , one of the points that need to be emphasized is that NNSs do not constitute a homogeneous group, as there are several factors that affect the ultimate teaching capabilities of a given teacher.
These factors combine in a way that ultimately determines the teaching characteristics of an individual. Future research should take these factors into account and contemplate any generalizations regarding NNSs or NSs in the light of these factors. Benke, E. New York: Springer, Carrier, K. Cots, J.
Estaire, S. Planning Classwork: A thematic task-based approach. Oxford: Heinemann, Hones, D. Kamhi-Stein, L. Lasagabaster, D. Llurda, E. The professional skills and beliefs of non-native speakers in English language teaching. Dogancay-Aktuna and J. Sharifian ed. English as an International Language.
Perspectives and Issues. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, McKay, S. Medgyes, P. The Non-Native Teacher. London: Macmillan, Moussu, L. Unpublished M. Pacek, D. Reves, T. Project Work Step by Step. Samimy, K.
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Siguan, M. Tsui, A. Understanding expertise in teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Abstract In the last twenty years, we have seen a great deal of research on English as a Lingua Franca and non-native teachers of English. In this chapter, I intend to provide a global overview of some of the main findings obtained in previous studies, with the goal of centering the attention on those aspects with the highest relevance and emphasizing the connection between non-native teachers and English as a Lingua Franca.
If we are to have a natural universal language, that language should be English, and it will serve both as a cultural and as a natural language Pessoa Introduction Contact with diverse languages and cultures provides an excellent opportunity to foster the development of intercultural communicative competence. Through the ages, certain languages have taken on the role of a lingua franca in specific communities.
In Europe, for instance, In the Middle Ages, Latin assumed the role of a contact language among the reigns, while later in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, French was the chosen language. The Portuguese and Spanish maritime expansion from the fifteenth century onwards also contributed to the rise of the Portuguese and Spanish languages as lingua francas not only in South America and Africa, but in other parts of the world too. The spread of the British Empire in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries propagated the influence of the English language across the globe.
Unlike any other language, past or present, the English language has spread to all continents and become a truly global language. This relatively recent development has contributed to the wide exposure to English and to the growing influence of the language in societies worldwide. In this presentation, we explore the role of English in three different countries — Brazil, Cape Verde and Portugal — located on three different continents, but having one common official language, Portuguese. Given the importance of English and Portuguese at both national and inter- national levels, we first begin by briefly discussing the role of the Portuguese language in the world, specifically in these three countries.
Afterwards, we center our attention on the role of English in these communities, particularly regarding English language education. Portuguese around the world Portuguese is currently considered the eighth most spoken language around the world with approximately two hundred and forty million speakers spread throughout the seven continents.
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These numbers continue to bear witness to the Portuguese maritime expansion that began in the fifteenth century and went from the Far East, to the Western shores of South America and along the coast of Africa. As a result, Portuguese became the language of contact in many far off communities; a common lingua franca spoken in local trade and commerce, later on contributing to Portuguese influenced pidgins and creoles.
After this brief overview of the influence of the language around the world, let us now reflect on the role Portuguese plays in each of the countries taken into consideration in this talk, Portugal, Brazil and Cape Verde. As it is normally expected, time and contact with other communities have contributed to the evolution of a separate variety when compared to European Portuguese, namely regarding accent, specific vocabulary and syntax structure. Located off the western coast of Africa, Cape Verde is a nation composed of ten islands of which nine are inhabited.
However, when they were discovered and colonized by Portuguese in the fifteenth century it was not inhabited. The settlers arrived at Santiago Island in , and founded there Ribeira Grande now Cidade Velha —the first permanent European settlement city in the tropics and soon slaves were brought from the West African coast to perform the hard labor. The resident Africans spoke different languages among themselves, so communication with the colonizers was very difficult or even impossible, without a common language for interaction. As a result, they shaped the Portuguese language according to their needs, and this adaptation and simplification resulted in a sort of pidgin, which after lengthy contact with other European and African languages developed into a Creole, so that the colonizer and the colonized could mutually and intelligibility communicate.
Since Cape Verde became independent in , Portuguese has remained the official language in the archipelago. It is first introduced in the primary educational system at the age of 5 or 6, and is the medium of instruction from here onwards. English in a Portuguese Landscape English has had a crucial role as a foreign language in traditionally denoted expanding circle countries or, as better referred to today, as the language for international communication, and the Portuguese landscape is no exception, having shown ties with the English language from early on.
In this section, we first refer to the implementation of the English language in the three selected countries and secondly, reflect on pedagogical implications that have risen through time. We will have a domestic life and a public life. For what we want to learn, we will read in English; for what we want to feel, Portuguese. For what we want to teach, we will speak English; for what we want to say, we will say it in Portuguese.
The country has one of the oldest alliances with the United Kingdom and already in the eighteenth century, English was taught at some faculties and military schools. However, it is only in the nineteenth century with the creation of secondary schools that ELT begins to play an important role in the educational system. Later, with the Reform of , special relevance is given to English due to its role in international relations, namely because of its growing importance worldwide, the strong political and commercial relations between Portugal and England, and the neighboring colonies of both countries.
Several reforms have taken place since then, of which three are worth mentioning: the Syllabus for Basic and Secondary Education, the Basic Education Curriculum and the Secondary Education Syllabus. The recent awareness towards the growing role of English as an international language is obvious in the shift from the monopoly of the UK and US paradigms, to other English native cultures. However, emphasis continues to be given to communities of English expression i. In addition, when reference is actually made to other communities, it continues to stress cultural factors rather than adopt a linguistic approach.
The presence of the English from here onwards was visible due to trade and the influence of English companies established in Brazil. Consequently, the need to use English for professional purposes and for the development of the country contributed to the implementation of ELT at the beginning of the nineteenth century.
Un- fortunately, learners attending only the public school system are unable to achieve high levels of English proficiency due to many deficiencies in the system. Therefore, we can conclude that English knowledge is intimately linked with the notions of social status and success as Friedrich notes: The desire for learning English to get a better job or promotion indicates that English works as a means of social ascension.
It also implies that in Brazil there is a social attitude towards English that draws people to learn the language. This social attitude equates knowing English with being more materially successful. Friedrich Positioned on the great trade routes between Africa, Europe and the New World, Cape Verde prospered from the transatlantic slave trade, but when it declined in the nineteenth century, the archipelago suffered a great blow in its economy. It was around this time that Cape Verdeans started emigrating to the United States where they were recruited to work on New England whaling ships.
Despite this early contact with the English language, up until about a decade ago, French was the most influential foreign language in the archipelago and the first foreign language to be introduced in the education system due to geo-political reasons. English was the second foreign language in the curriculum, chosen as an optional language when children entered secondary education. However, from onwards due to the educational reform, English has become one the most prominent foreign languages, either in education or in society. In general, most of the students tend to choose English as their first foreign language for many different reasons, such as the influence of American music and films, and to communicate with their relatives in the Diaspora.
Case study Our analysis has taken into consideration three separate sociolinguistic studies developed in the three countries so as to compare and contrast each ELT framework regarding general pedagogical contexts, sex and age of the informant learners, varieties of English used in ELT and the attitudes towards the relative evaluation of native vs.
As above mentioned, we take into consideration three studies, one carried out in Portugal, another in Brazil and another in Cape Verde. The Portuguese case study Cavalheiro is aimed at both a group of undergraduate students attending different levels of English classes at the Faculty of Letters of the University Lisbon FLUL and a group of English language teachers working at the same institution. As for the average age of students, it is of 24 years of age, however, numbers range from as young as 18 to as old as In the case of the Brazilian study Berto , it focuses on teacher training courses in four Brazilian universities in the region of Porto Alegre.
As for the study carried out in Cape Verde Nunes , it is centered on secondary schools located on the Island of Santiago, especially focusing on schools in the center, periphery and rural areas of the island. Contrary to the two previous studies, the subjects of this one are equally balanced according to sex. Regarding age, the average is It is worth noting that students from rural areas are older when compared to those in the center and periphery areas.
When reflecting on ELT, one issue that requires some consideration is the variety of English that should be taught in the classroom. It is interesting to compare the results obtained concerning these attitudes with those about English language use outside the classroom, the variety the informants believe they actually speak. In the study conducted in Portugal Cavalheiro , opinions diverge somewhat when regarding the variety the subjects believe they speak and the varieties that should be taught. When enquired on the variety they believe they speak, half of the students think they are influenced by the American variety, while the other half believes they follow the British variety.
Worth noting is the fact that none of the students refer to other varieties, showing a deep ingrained influence of both native varieties in the Portuguese society, especially regarding BrE. When comparing these results to those obtained concerning the variety that should be taught to Cape Verdean students, the numbers seem quite similar, contrary to what was verified in Portugal.
In ELT, much has been discussed on the role of native and non-native teachers in expanding circle environments, debating on whether one or the other are the best models for language learning. In each of the case studies we analyze, this issue is also taken into consideration so as to receive some feedback from students, teacher trainees and ELT teachers. In the first case, findings reveal native speakers have great influence in the correct usage of the language These opinions may be associated with the fact that non-native teachers are traditionally not connoted with the same ideal status as their native colleagues.
Nonetheless, they may be more prepared to explain and teach a language that they have learned as well, therefore, sharing the same doubts and anguishes as the learners. In the case of non-native English speaking teachers, respondents generally also agree with the fundamental role of non-native teachers in ELT This may have to do with the fact that non- natives are English teachers as well and at times they may doubt themselves because they do not consider they are the most suitable when compared to natives. Achieving a native speaker command of the language was traditionally the main objective for language teachers, however, nowadays native speaker competence is considered as an unrealistic and even counterproductive goal for non-native speakers.
Recent findings reveal non-native teachers have a larger advantage when compared to their native colleagues in terms of common knowledge of their culture and the difficulties shared in learning English i. Although these teacher trainees in Brazil seem more open minded when considering ELF in ELT, the idea of nativeness still seems to persist when concerning what varieties should be taught.
It seems major native varieties, American and British English Standard still have significant influence over the communities, especially in the academic sphere. In the professional field, an ELF approach has a more favorable feedback, as communication is the ultimate aim, contrary to native speaker likeness many times implemented by teachers in the classroom.
All in all, these studies hope to pave the way to a better understanding of local practices and how they are integrated in the global context, in particular in these three countries which also share another lingua franca in common — Portuguese. Works Cited Almada, O. Lisboa, Barbosa, M. Faculty of Letters of the University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Cavalheiro, Lili.
Dias, Mauricio. Rio de Janeiro: Sextante Artes, Gnutzmann, Claus ed. Ministry of Education. Guidelines to Syllabi Implementation: English — Years 10, 11 and English Language Programme: Years 10, 11 and 12 Beginners level. Guidelines for the curriculum Reorganization of Secondary Education. Oliveira, Luiz Eduardo Menezes Tese de mestrado. Brasil: Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Pessoa, Fernando. Editor L. Abstract Unlike other languages, English has spread to all continents and become a truly global language, a process observable in countries, like Brazil, Cape Verde, and Portugal, located in three different continents, and sharing a common official language: Portuguese.
This relatively recent development has contributed to the wide exposure to English and the growing influence of the language in their societies, being used with lingua franca communicative purposes, which raises pedagogical issues. Our aim is to map the exposure and use of English as a Lingua Franca in these Portuguese speaking countries through a comparative study of the results from three case studies Berto , Cavalheiro and Nunes Keywords English as a lingua franca; Portuguese language; English language teaching; Non- native speakers.
Introduction The all-pervading role that English as an International Language EIL has increasingly been playing worldwide will unavoidably have an impact on national languages. Given the assumed prestige of English as a source language SL , interference from English may occur not only in everyday European Portuguese1 but also in specialised discourse. This paper presents a general overview of the current state of the art regarding EIL and discusses how it influences Portuguese.
This influence will be addressed by analysing loanwords, calques, false friends, abbreviations and acronyms used by the legal and medical communities of practice, namely in translated and non- translated contracts and medical research articles RAs. The role of English in international communication: an overview In the last decades, the English language has gradually gained ground as the favoured means of international communication worldwide.
English may indeed serve various functions: the instrumental, the interpersonal, the institutional or administrative , and the innovative Berns The institutional function, although usually less frequent at a national level, is nevertheless perceptible in many situations where English is used as a default language, for example, at international meetings with both NS and NNS of English.
The way the English language is used in the media, in advertising, in music, and on the Internet — be it on blogs, chat rooms, or instant messaging — fulfils yet another function, the innovative one. These functions, defined by Berns with reference to the spread of English in the European Union EU , can easily be adopted to describe the way English is used throughout the world.
This widespread use has led a number of researchers4 to argue that English currently holds a hegemonic position in several domains of everyday life with implications for national languages. This is, however, a controversial stance as other researchers6 hold a contrary view, claiming that the overwhelming presence of English worldwide need not be a threat to other languages mainly because NNS will use English as a language for communication, a vehicular language to make themselves understood in international situations, rather than as a language for identification, i.
Indeed, reality has shown that when faced with many different languages, even NNS of English will choose it over their mother tongues and over any other foreign language to communicate at an international level. The controversy over the so-called hegemonic role of English falls, however, beyond the scope of this paper.
Yet, it is a fact that the prevailing influence of English is felt globally in such various fields of human activity as the cinema, advertising, the media as well as in specialised domains e. EFL e. The influence of EIL on written Portuguese will be discussed placing special emphasis on the pervasiveness of standard English8 in contracts and medical RAs, two genres from the specialised domains of law and medicine.
With that in mind, exposure to EIL in Portugal will be first addressed as a backdrop to the impact of English in those two types of texts. Exposure to EIL in Portugal When Portugal joined the European Union in , it adopted and imple- mented the EU language policy that promotes multilingualism and language diversity and that encourages EU citizens to speak at least any two foreign languages.
Indeed, this enlargement brought about a radical change in terms of the favoured default language for communication between NS and NNS alike. If a high percentage of documents and publications were initially mainly drafted and released in one of the official languages other than English, Kachru et al and Kingsley Bolton do not constitute the main interest of this paper because EFL, on the one hand, looks at the influence of English worldwide from the language learning viewpoint; WE, on the other hand, describes and discusses the different varieties of English used worldwide.
Web 10 October German and French, this state of affairs has gradually changed over time as English became the language most commonly used in official and unofficial EU meetings Berns The spread of English also finds expression in Portugal where, in general terms, exposure to EIL takes place across areas as different as the educational system, literature, cinema, television, and the press. In the primary and secondary school system, English became the first foreign language taught at school in the mids, replacing French. Four decades later, English is the first and dominant foreign language and a statutory subject of the national school curriculum.
The early teaching of English was implemented from onwards, starting with 6-year-olds; English is taught throughout the school curriculum until the end of the secondary school, although it is an optional subject from the 10th grade onwards. At tertiary level, the Bologna Process has further promoted the spread of English, namely through the Erasmus and Leonardo da Vinci exchange programmes.
Available data on the use of English as an academic language for research and teaching at this level in Portugal Barros n. Other data Azuaga and Cavalheiro for the same level regarding students and teaching staff alike evidence a passive contact i. As regards translated published literature and the media cinema, television and the press , available data for Portugal also point clearly to the strong presence of English in the country.
The fact that English is the main SL for translated literature, cinema, and television in Portugal may account for an overall exposure to English. In the Academy Dictionary, English loanwords appear under different forms, that is, with their original English spelling, with changes to adapt to Portuguese spelling and with dual spelling. The Academy Dictionary also lists loanwords which have undergone changes in spelling Casanova 15 to comply with Portuguese spelling rules, e. British English Portuguese Gang gangue football futebol handball andebol Finally, several entries are listed with dual spelling, the English and the Portuguese, both forms being accepted and used interchangeably, as in the examples below discussed by Casanova Those speakers had probably long forgotten that many.
Only time will lead to full acceptance of the new loanwords which now still seem so foreign to many Portuguese speakers. As illustrated by the Academy Dictionary, the impact of English is felt in most domains where, one may assume for no other reason than English is a prestigious language, it has become common practice to favour the English or Anglicised word to the detriment of the Portuguese word. Another example of how English permeates the Portuguese language is to be found in the press.
Another relevant characteristic is the abundance of Portuguese companies with English-sounding names e. The impact of EIL in contracts and medical RAs in Portugal As shown by the Academy Dictionary, English loanwords have made their way into the Portuguese language and are used by its speakers across various contexts.
The Academy Dictionary further attests that the presence of English has spread to more specialised domains where calques, false friends, hybrid expressions and English acronyms have become a recurrent feature. As regards both translated and non-translated contracts and medical RAs, English loanwords are commonly used even though not all of them It might be expected that the pervasiveness of English would not be felt in contracts as clearly as it is, since Portugal is a civil law country and most English-speaking countries are common law countries.
Similarly, six major Portuguese law firms conducting international business have bilingual web sites in Portuguese and English. Between In medical RAs things appear to be similar as there is a repeated occurrence of words in English both in translated and non-translated texts. Indeed, English has become the predominant language of medicine19 and,. Not surprisingly, Portugal is no exception to this state of affairs. Medical students, doctors and researchers are significantly exposed to English since most reference books adopted in Portuguese medical schools are in English and health professionals learn about medical advancements mostly through medical journals published in this language.
Portuguese medical journals publish abstracts in English and have adopted the requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals drawn up by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors ICMJE. Given these circumstances, it is hardly surprising that medical Portuguese appears to be influenced by English.
As stated above, the Academy Dictionary also attests to the presence of English in these two specialised domains i. The pervasiveness of English goes, however, beyond dictionary entries as there are several English terms which are not listed in the Academy Dictionary and yet they are widely accepted and used by these two communities of practice.
The examples presented below for lexical imports listed and not listed in the Academy Dictionary are a case in point. Although there are Portuguese terms to refer to these very same concepts, the legal community of practice acknowledges and uses the English terms more often than it does the Portuguese ones.
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